Laws mandating on property improvement
In order to impose an easement on an undivided tenement, or piece of land, the consent of all the co-owners shall be required. A public nuisance affects a community or neighborhood or any considerable number of persons, although the extent of the annoyance, danger or damage upon individuals may be unequal. Every successive owner or possessor of property who fails or refuses to abate a nuisance in that property started by a former owner or possessor is liable therefor in the same manner as the one who created it. The abatement of a nuisance does not preclude the right of any person injured to recover damages for its past existence. Any proprietor intending to make any excavation contemplated in the three preceding articles shall notify all owners of adjacent lands. Every owner of a tenement or piece of land may establish thereon the easements which he may deem suitable, and in the manner and form which he may deem best, provided he does not contravene the laws, public policy or public order. The down payment initial upfront part of the total cost due and it is typically given in cash when the transaction is being finalized.
In this case, a down payment makes it more likely for the lender to recover the full amount during a default by reducing the risk to less than the collateral’s value.
The usufructuary of woodland may enjoy all the benefits which it may produce according to its nature. The banks of rivers and streams, even in case they are of private ownership, are subject throughout their entire length and within a zone of three meters along their margins, to the easement of public use in the general interest of navigation, floatage, fishing and salvage. Easements for drawing water and for watering animals carry with them the obligation of the owners of the servient estates to allow passage to persons and animals to the place where such easements are to be used, and the indemnity shall include this service. (1) To prove that he can dispose of the water and that it is sufficient for the use for which it is intended; (2) To show that the proposed right of way is the most convenient and the least onerous to third persons; (3) To indemnify the owner of the servient estate in the manner determined by the laws and regulations. In all these cases, the ownership of the walls, fences or hedges shall be deemed to belong exclusively to the owner of the property or tenement which has in its favor the presumption based on any one of these signs. There is a sign contrary to the part-ownership whenever the earth or dirt removed to open the ditch or to clean it is only on one side thereof, in which case the ownership of the ditch shall belong exclusively to the owner of the land having this exterior sign in its favor. Nevertheless, any owner may exempt himself from contributing to this charge by renouncing his part-ownership, except when the party wall supports a building belonging to him. If the party wall cannot bear the increased height, the owner desiring to raise it shall be obliged to reconstruct it at his own expense and, if for this purpose it be necessary to make it thicker, he shall give the space required from his own land. (1) From the time of the opening of the window, if it is through a party wall; or (2) From the time of the formal prohibition upon the proprietor of the adjoining land or tenement, if the window is through a wall on the dominant estate. Nevertheless, the owner of the tenement or property adjoining the wall in which the openings are made can close them should he acquire part-ownership thereof, if there be no stipulation to the contrary. No windows, apertures, balconies, or other similar projections which afford a direct view upon or towards an adjoining land or tenement can be made, without leaving a distance of two meters between the wall in which they are made and such contiguous property. The provisions of Article 670 are not applicable to buildings separated by a public way or alley, which is not less than three meters wide, subject to special regulations and local ordinances. Any stipulation permitting distances less than those prescribed in Article 670 is void. Even if it should fall on his own land, the owner shall be obliged to collect the water in such a way as not to cause damage to the adjacent land or tenement.
Any person who may wish to use upon his own estate any water of which he can dispose shall have the right to make it flow through the intervening estates, with the obligation to indemnify their owners, as well as the owners of the lower estates upon which the waters may filter or descend. The easement of aqueduct does not prevent the owner of the servient estate from closing or fencing it, or from building over the aqueduct in such manner as not to cause the latter any damage, or render necessary repairs and cleanings impossible. In both cases, the public highway must substantially meet the needs of the dominant estate in order that the easement may be extinguished. Whenever it is necessary to establish a compulsory easement of the right of way or for a watering place for animals, the provisions of this Section and those of Articles 640 and 641 shall be observed. (1) Whenever in the dividing wall of buildings there is a window or opening; (2) Whenever the dividing wall is, on one side, straight and plumb on all its facement, and on the other, it has similar conditions on the upper part, but the lower part slants or projects outward; (3) Whenever the entire wall is built within the boundaries of one of the estates; (4) Whenever the dividing wall bears the burden of the binding beams, floors and roof frame of one of the buildings, but not those of the others; (5) Whenever the dividing wall between courtyards, gardens, and tenements is constructed in such a way that the coping sheds the water upon only one of the estates; (6) Whenever the dividing wall, being built of masonry, has stepping stones, which at certain intervals project from the surface on one side only, but not on the other; (7) Whenever lands inclosed by fences or live hedges adjoin others which are not inclosed. Ditches or drains opened between two estates are also presumed as common to both, if there is no title or sign showing the contrary. The cost of repairs and construction of party walls and the maintenance of fences, live hedges, ditches, and drains owned in common, shall be borne by all the owners of the lands or tenements having the party wall in their favor, in proportion to the right of each. If the owner of a building, supported by a party wall desires to demolish the building, he may also renounce his part-ownership of the wall, but the cost of all repairs and work necessary to prevent any damage which the demolition may cause to the party wall, on this occasion only, shall be borne by him. The expenses of maintaining the wall in the part newly raised or deepened at its foundation shall also be paid for by him; and, in addition, the indemnity for the increased expenses which may be necessary for the preservation of the party wall by reason of the greater height or depth which has been given it. The other owners who have not contributed in giving increased height, depth or thickness to the wall may, nevertheless, acquire the right of part-ownership therein, by paying proportionally the value of the work at the time of the acquisition and of the land used for its increased thickness. When the distances in Article 670 are not observed, the owner of a wall which is not party wall, adjoining a tenement or piece of land belonging to another, can make in it openings to admit light at the height of the ceiling joints or immediately under the ceiling, and of the size of thirty centimeters square, and, in every case, with an iron grating imbedded in the wall and with a wire screen. Whenever by any title a right has been acquired to have direct views, balconies or belvederes overlooking an adjoining property, the owner of the servient estate cannot build thereon at less than a distance of three meters to be measured in the manner provided in Article 671. The owner of a building shall be obliged to construct its roof or covering in such manner that the rain water shall fall on his own land or on a street or public place, and not on the land of his neighbor, even though the adjacent land may belong to two or more persons, one of whom is the owner of the roof. The owner of a tenement or a piece of land, subject to the easement of receiving water falling from roofs, may build in such manner as to receive the water upon his own roof or give it another outlet in accordance with local ordinances or customs, and in such a way as not to cause any nuisance or damage whatever to the dominant estate. The provisions of this article also apply to trees which have grown spontaneously.
The amount of the down payment determines how much the lender is protected against various factors that can reduce the collateral’s value.
It also protects the lender from lost profits between the last payment and the subsequent sale of the collateral.
Search for laws mandating on property improvement:
The owner of a tenement or piece of land, the usufruct of which belongs to another, may impose thereon, without the consent of the usufructuary, any servitudes which will not injure the right of usufruct. But the consent given by one of the co-owners separately from the others shall bind the grantor and his successors not to prevent the exercise of the right granted. In default thereof, the easement shall be governed by such provisions of this Title as are applicable thereto. (1) Injures or endangers the health or safety of others; or (2) Annoys or offends the senses; or (3) Shocks, defies or disregards decency or morality; or (4) Obstructs or interferes with the free passage of any public highway or street, or any body of water; or (5) Hinders or impairs the use of property.