They recognized the effect of cooking on the outcome of meat.
Ancient Greeks and Roman physicians "prescribed" cooking methods by humoral theory.
In the realm of smoked ham, salt beef, and dried fish, the concept of a "doneness" scale from raw to overcooked did not exist.
A Western history of definitions & preferences According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "rare," counterbalancing "done" describing the doneness of meat, descendsfrom the word "rear," meaning imperfectly cooked or underdone. The earliest printreference to the word "rare" relating to meat cookery is circa 1615. Meat thermometers (1930s) took the guesswork out of judging doneness. Generally, we like meat to e tender and juicy rather than tough and dry.
This early reference notes this stage is unwholesome [Markam]. Black and blue(aka"Pittsburgh style" steak surfaces in print in the 1970s. The ideal method forcooking meat would therefore minimize moisture loss and compacting of the meat fiers, while maximizing the conversion oftough connective-tissue colllagen to fluid gelatin.
The texture of rawmeat is a kindk of slick, resistant mushiness.
The fluid release is at its maximum when the meat is onlylightly cooked, or done 'rare.' As the temperature increases and the meat dries out, physical change gives way to chemicalchange, and to the development of armo as cell molecules break apart and recombine with each other to form new moleculesthat not only smell meaty, but also fruity and floral, nutty and grassy (esters, ketones, aldehydes)...
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167 Coole endiffe, radish, new egs rosted reare, And late-prest cheese; which earthen dishes beare.1700 Dryden tr. Americans love affair with meat, especially beef, refects ancient heritage, old world cooking methods and modernscientific knowledge.