Dating arbuda arab so
825), and Al-Kindi's four-volume work On the Use of the Indian Numerals (ca. During the Gupta period (early 4th century to the late 6th century), the Gupta numerals developed from the Brahmi numerals and were spread over large areas by the Gupta empire as they conquered territory.During the Vedic period (1500–500 BCE), motivated by geometric construction of the fire altars and astronomy, the use of a numerical system and of basic mathematical operations developed in northern India.Textual references to a place-value system are seen from the 1st century CE onward.The Buddhist philosopher Vasubandhu in the 1st century says "when [the same] clay counting-piece is in the place of units, it is denoted as one, when in hundreds, one hundred." A commentary on Patanjali's Yoga Sutras from the 5th century reads, "Just as a line in the hundreds place [means] a hundred, in the tens place ten, and one in the ones place, so one and the same woman is called mother, daughter and sister." A system called bhūta-sankhya ("object numbers" or "concrete numbers") was employed for representing numerals in Sanskrit verses, by using a concept representing a digit to stand for the digit itself.The Jain text entitled the Lokavibhaga, dated 458 CE, In 628 CE, astronomer-mathematician Brahmagupta wrote his text Brahma Sphuta Siddhanta which contained the first mathematical treatment of zero.
I wish only to say that this computation is done by means of nine signs.
A multiple of 100 or 1000 was represented by a modification (or "enciphering" Such enciphered numerals directly represented the named place-value numerals used verbally.
They continued to be used in inscriptions until the end of the 9th century.
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